Percutaneous insertion of cannulated pedicle screws has been recently developed as a minimally invasive alternative to the open technique during instrumented fusion procedures. Placement of 60 pedicle screws in 15 consecutive patients undergoing lumbar or lumbosacral fusion, mainly for spondylolisthesis, were analyzed. Axial, coronal, and sagittal reformatted computer tomography images were examined by three observers. Individual and consensus interpretation was obtained for each screw position. Along with frank penetration, we also looked at cortical encroachment of the pedicular wall by the screw.